Sunday, June 2, 2024

CONTROVERSIES AND DOUBTS IN THE HADITH OF MUHAMMAD

The Hadith of Bukhari**


Hundreds of thousands of hadiths (narratives) claim to describe the teachings and actions of Muhammad and his close followers. Early Muslims scrutinized these hadiths to determine which among them were genuine. There are six collections of hadiths considered "sahih" or authentic and authoritative by Sunnis. These hadiths are regarded as nearly as important as the Quran itself. The longest collection is Sahih al-Bukhari, which contains nine volumes and 7,275 hadiths. The following points are particularly noteworthy for both Muslim and non-Muslim readers from the hadiths of the Bukhari collection. These excerpts are taken from the book "The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari" by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan of the Islamic University of Madinah Al-Munawwara, Saudi Arabia.


**Muhammad Is Not Worshipped**

"After that, Abu Bakr said the Tashah-hud (i.e., none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger)... Abu Bakr said, 'Whoever worshipped Muhammad, Muhammad is dead, but whoever worships Allah, Allah is alive and will never die. Allah said: 'Muhammad is no more than a Messenger...'" Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 23 (Funerals), Chapter 3, No. 333, p.188-189.


However, Muslims greatly revere Muhammad. "By Allah, whenever the Prophet of Allah spat, it would fall into the hand of one of (i.e., the companions of the Prophet) who would rub it on his face and skin; when he ordered them, they carried out his orders immediately; when he performed ablution, they almost fought for the remaining water; and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at him directly out of respect." Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 50 (Conditions), Chapter 13, No. 891, p.564-565.


**Prohibition of Intoxicants**

"Aisha [the wife of Muhammad] narrated that the Prophet said, 'Every intoxicant is prohibited to drink.'" Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 4 (Ablution), Chapter 75, No. 243, p.153.


"Abu Huraira narrated: 'The Prophet said, 'An adulterer, at the time he is committing illegal sexual intercourse, is not a believer; and a person, at the time of drinking an alcoholic drink, is not a believer; and a thief, at the time of stealing, is not a believer.'" Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 69 (Drinks), Chapter 1, No. 484, p.339.


Muslims are also forbidden from selling wine, idols, and pork. Sahih Muslim, Volume 3, Book 9 (Business Transactions), Chapter 621-622, No. 3835-3840, p.828-830. They are not allowed to buy, sell, or carry wine. Ibn Majah, Volume 4, Book 30 (Drinks), No. 3380-3381, p.493-494; Volume 4, Book 30, No. 3382, p.494. The selling of wine is forbidden in Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 8 (Prayer), Chapter 73, No. 449, p.267.


**Did Muhammad See the Moon Split in Two?**

"The pagans asked the Prophet to show them a miracle, so he showed them the splitting of the moon. 'Abdullah bin Masud narrated: 'During the lifetime of the Prophet, the moon was split into two parts and on that the Prophet said, 'Bear witness (to this).'" Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56 (Virtues and Merits of the Prophet and His Companions), Chapter 26, No. 830, p. 533.


"Anas narrated that the people of Makkah asked Allah's Messenger to show them a miracle, and so he showed them the moon split in two." Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56 (Virtues and Merits of the Prophet and His Companions), Chapter 26, No. 831, p.533.


"Ibn Abbas narrated: 'The moon was split into two parts during the lifetime of the Prophet.'" Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56 (Virtues and Merits of the Prophet and His Companions), Chapter 26, No. 832, p.534.


**Stars Should Strike the Devils?**

"The creation of the stars was made for three purposes, i.e., as decorations of the sky, as missiles to hit the devils, and as signs to guide travelers. So, anyone who tries to find a different interpretation is mistaken and wastes his efforts..." Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54 (Beginning of Creation), Chapter 3, Commentary by Translator before No. 421, p.282.


**Memory of Abu Huraira**

"Abu Huraira narrated: 'I said, 'O Allah's Messenger! I hear many narrations from you but I forget them.' He said, 'Spread your garment.' I did accordingly and then he moved his hands as if scooping something and emptied it in the garment and said, 'Wrap it.' I wrapped it around my body, and since then I have never forgotten a single Hadith." Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56 (Virtues and Merits of the Prophet and His Companions), Chapter 27, No. 841, p.538. Also, Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 92 (Holding Fast to the Quran and Sunnah), Chapter 22, No. 452, p.332; Volume 1, Book 3 (Knowledge), Chapter 43, No. 119, p.89.


**Satan in Your Nose**

"Abu Huraira narrated: 'The Prophet said, 'If anyone of you rouses from sleep and performs the ablution, he should wash his nose by putting water in it and then blowing it out thrice because Satan stays in the upper part of the nose all night.'" (1) Translator's note (1) says, "We should believe that Satan actually stays in the upper part of a person's nose, though we cannot perceive how, for this involves the unseen world about which we cannot know anything except what Allah tells us through His Messenger." Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54 (Beginning of Creation), Chapter 10, No. 516, p.328.


**Believing Muhammad Despite the Presence of Flies**

"Abu Huraira narrated: 'The Prophet said, 'If a fly falls into the drink of any one of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for that disease.'" Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54 (Beginning of Creation), Chapter 16, No. 537, p.338. See also Abu Dawud, Volume 3, Book 21 (Food), No. 3835, p.1080.


"Abu Huraira narrated: 'The Prophet of Allah said, 'If a fly falls into the vessel of any one of you, let him dip it in the vessel and then throw it away, for in one of its wings there is disease and in the other there is healing (1) (antidote), i.e., treatment for that disease." Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 71 (Medicine), Chapter 58, No. 673, p.452-453.


Translator's note (1) says, "In the medical science, it is well known today that flies carry pathogens on some parts of their bodies as stated by the Prophet (nearly 1400 years ago when human knowledge of modern medical science was very limited.) Similarly, Allah has created microorganisms and their actions that can kill these pathogens, e.g., Penicillin Fungus can kill bacteria like Staphylococci and others. Recently, experiments have shown that flies carry both disease-causing pathogens and their antidotes. Normally, when a fly touches a liquid, it contaminates it with its pathogens, thus it must be dipped to release the antidotes to counteract the pathogens. Regarding this subject, I also wrote to my friend Dr. Muhammad M. El-SAMAHY, Head of the Hadith Department at Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, who wrote an article about this Hadith concerning medical science, stating that microbiologists have proven that there are longitudinal parasitic germs living as pathogens inside the fly's stomach, which these parasitic germs come out through the respiratory tracts of the fly, and if the fly is dipped into the liquid, these germs burst into the liquid and the substances within these germs are antidotes for the pathogens carried by the fly."


Most doctors, if not Muslim, ridicule the idea of deliberately dipping a fly into your drink.


**Muhammad Had Sins**

"Abu Huraira narrated: ... What do you say between the Takbir and the recitation? The Prophet said, ... O Lord! Keep me away from my sins as the East and West are apart from each other and clean me from sins as a white garment is cleaned from dirt (after thorough washing). O Lord! Wash away my sins with water, snow, and hail." Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12 (Characteristics of Prayer), Chapter 8, No. 711, p.398. See also Surah 40:55; 48:1-2, and Bukhari


, Volume 1, Book 2 (Faith), Chapter 13, No. 19, p.23; Volume 1, Book 12 (Characteristics of Prayer), Chapter 57, No. 781, p.434; Volume 6, Book 60 (Prophetic Commentary on the Quran), Chapter 3, No. 3, p.4; Volume 8, Book 75 (Invocations), Chapter 3, No. 319, p.213.


**Muhammad Was Bewitched (Under a Spell)**


**"‘Aisha narrated: The Prophet was bewitched so that he began to think that he was doing something which he was not doing. One day he invoked (Allah) for a long period and then said, 'I feel that Allah has inspired me as how to cure myself.'..." Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54 (Beginning of Creation), Chapter 10, No. 490, p.317. See also Volume 4, Book 53 (Obligatory Charity Tax), Chapter 34, No. 400, p.267, Volume 8, Book 73 (Good Manners), Chapter 56, No. 89, p.56-57, Volume 8, Book 75 (Invocations), Chapter 59, No. 400, p.266-267. Volume 7, No. 658-660, p.441-443. Also see Sahih Muslim, Volume 2, Book 4 (Prayer), Chapter 309, No. 1888, p.411.**


**"‘Aisha narrated: The Prophet continued for such and such a period imagining that he had had sexual relations with his wives which in fact he had not. One day he said to me, 'O ‘Aisha! Allah has instructed me regarding the matter about which I asked Him. Two persons came to me (in a dream), one of them sat near my head and the other near my feet. The one near my head asked the other, pointing to me, 'What is wrong with this man?' The latter replied, 'He is under the effect of magic.' The first one asked, 'Who had worked magic on him?' The other replied, 'Lubaid bin A'sam.' The first one asked, '(Under what material) has it been done?' The other replied, 'Under a skin of the pollen of a male date palm tree kept under a stone in the well of Dharwan.' Then the Prophet went to that well and said, 'This is the same well which was shown to me (in the dream). Its water looked like the infusion of henna leaves and its date-palm trees looked like the heads of devils.' ... ‘Aisha added, '(The magician) Lubaid bin A'sam was one of Bani Zuraiq, an ally of the Jews.'" Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73 (Good Manners), Chapter 56, No. 89, p.57. See also Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 75 (Invocations), Chapter 59, No. 400, p.266.**


**The Daughters of Allah**

In pre-Muhammad Arabia, Muhammad's tribe, the Quraysh, believed in a god named Allah (or Al'Ilah) who had three daughters called Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat.


"'Urwa said, ... regarding Ansar who used to consider Ihram while worshipping an idol called 'Manat' whom they used to worship at a place called Al-Mushallal..." Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26 (Pilgrimage), Chapter 78, No. 706, p.413.


"This verse was revealed concerning Ansar who used to consider Ihram for the idol Manat which was placed at a place called Qudaid..." Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 27 (Umra), Chapter 10, No. 18, p.11. Al-Lat, Al-Uzza are described in Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 74 (Asking Permission), Chapter 52, No. 314, p.209; Volume 5, No. 375, p.259.


**Verses Removed from the Quran**

"After that, Allah revealed a verse which was among those that were abrogated later." Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59 (Military Expeditions), Chapter 27, No. 416, p.288.


"Anas bin Malik narrated: ... Allah revealed verses for those who were killed at Bir-Ma'una, and we used to recite those verses, but they were later cancelled. The verses were: 'Inform our people that we have met our Lord. He is pleased with us, and we are pleased with Him.'" Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52 (Jihad), Chapter 19, No. 69, p.53. See also the History of al-Tabari, Volume 7, p.156.


Other mentions of abrogated verses are Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52 (Jihad), Chapter 8, No. 57, p.45, Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52 (Jihad), Chapter 184, No. 299, p.191, and Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59 (Military Expeditions), Chapter 27, No. 421, p.293, all recounting the same verse.


At one time, Muhammad agreed to say regarding the daughters of Allah in Surah 53:19, "their intercession is to be hoped for." Muhammad said we should rely on the help of these three idols.


Muhammad's followers were surprised that he said this. Later, Muhammad changed his position, saying that Satan had deceived him. These verses were abrogated or removed. Islamic scholars call these verses "the Satanic Verses." It is intriguing to read Islamic explanations of how a true prophet could say such things.


**Unlike Jesus**

One thing that Christians and many Muslims agree on is that Jesus was sinless. By comparison, read about the life of Jesus in the Gospels.


**Muhammad and Selling Slaves**

"Anas bin Malik narrated: The Prophet of Allah was on a journey, and he had a black slave named Anjasha, and he was driving the camels..." Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73 (Good Manners), Chapter 95, No. 182, p.117.


"Anas narrated: ... And Anjashah, the slave of the Prophet [Muhammad], was driving the camels..." Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73 (Good Manners), Chapter 111, No. 221, p.142.


"Jabir bin 'Abdullah narrated: A man among us declared that his slave would be freed after his death. The Prophet called that slave and sold him (1). That slave died that year." Footnote (1) says, "The master was in need of money, so the Prophet sold the slave on his behalf and allowed him to revoke his promise of freeing the slave after his death." Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 45 (Mortgaging in Places Occupied by Settled Population), Chapter 9, No. 711, p.427.


"Then a man named Rifa'a bin Zaid ... brought a slave named Mid'am to the Prophet of Allah" Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 78 (Oaths and Vows), Chapter 33, No. 698, p.455.


"Selling of Mudabbar (i.e., a slave who was promised to be freed after the death of his master)." (433) Jabir narrated: "The Prophet sold a Mudabbar (on behalf of his master who was still alive and in need of money)." Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 34 (Sales and Trade), Chapter 112, Volume 433, before p.238.


"A man from the Ansar declared his slave Mudabbar, and he had no other property except him. When the Prophet heard of that, he said (to his companions), 'Who will buy (i.e., the slave) for me?' Nu'aim bin An-Nahham bought him for eight hundred Dirham." Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 79 (Expiation for Unfulfilled Oaths), Chapter 7, No. 707, p.464.


"'Ammar narrated: 'I saw the Prophet of Allah and there was no one with him except five slaves, two women, and Abu Bakr (i.e., these were the only people who had embraced Islam at that time)." Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 57 (Companions of the Prophet), Chapter 6, No. 12, p.8.


"[Ibn Az-Zubair] sent ['Aisha] ten slaves whom he freed as expiation for his oath. 'Aisha freed more slaves for the same purpose until she freed forty slaves. She said, 'Had I known I would specify what I would do if I failed to fulfill my vow when making it, so that I could fulfill it easily.'" (1)


Footnote (1) says, "'Aisha did not specify what she would do if she failed to fulfill her vow; hence, she freed many slaves to ensure the adequacy of her expiation." Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56 (Virtues and Merits of the Prophet and His Companions), Chapter 2, No. 708, p.465.


"And 'Ata did not like to look at the slave girls who were being sold in Makkah except when he


 wanted to buy." Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 74 (Asking Permission), Chapter 2, No. 246, p.162.


**Sexual Relations with Slaves and Captives**

"Can a person travel with a pregnant slave girl without knowing whether she is pregnant or not? Al-Hasan saw no harm in a man kissing or caressing a pregnant slave girl without having intercourse with her.


Ibn 'Umar said, 'If a slave girl fit for sexual relations was given as a gift to somebody, or was sold, or was set free, her master should not have sexual relations with her before she gets one menstrual period so as to be sure of the absence of pregnancy, and there is no such necessity for a virgin.'


'Atâ said, 'There is no harm in caressing a pregnant (1) slave girl without having sexual relations with her. Allah said: 'Except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, or (the captives) whom their right hands possess,- for (in their case) they are free from blame." Footnote (1) says, "Pregnant by another, not her present master." Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 34 (Sales and Trade), Chapter 113 after No. 436, p.239-240. (Same section as 'Atâ as previously.)


"Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri narrated that while he was sitting with the Prophet of Allah, he said, 'O Allah's Messenger! We get female captives as our share of the war booty, and we are interested in their prices; what is your opinion about coitus interruptus?' The Prophet said, 'Do you really do that? It is better for you not to do it, for Allah has written whom He is going to create till the Day of Resurrection.'" Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 34 (Sales and Trade), Chapter 111, No. 432, p.237.


"Ibn Muhairiz narrated: 'I entered the mosque and saw Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri and sat beside him and asked him about Al-'Azl (i.e., coitus interruptus). Abu Sa'id said, 'We went out with Allah's Messenger for the Ghazwa [battle] of Banu Al-Mustaliq and we received captives from among the captives of the Arabs and we desired the women and the celibacy became hard on us, and we loved to do coitus interruptus. So when we intended to do coitus interruptus, we said, 'How can we do coitus interruptus before asking Allah's Messenger who is present among us?' We asked him about it and he said, 'It is better for you not to do it, for Allah has destined whom He is going to create till the Day of Resurrection.'" Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59 (Military Expeditions), Chapter 31, No. 459, p.317. This part says the same as Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 77 (The Book of al-Qadr), Chapter 3, No. 600, p.391. In other words, whatever is to be will be, so do not prevent it unnaturally. Muhammad never condemned the harassment of captives or slaves that one owns.


**‘Aisha and Zainab bint Jahsh**

"Hisham's father narrated: Khadija died three years before the Prophet departed to Madina. He stayed there for about two years and then he married ‘Aisha when she was a girl of six years of age, and he consummated that marriage when she was nine years old." Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58 (Virtues of the Ansar), Chapter 43, No. 236, p.153. See Volume 5, Book 58 (Virtues of the Ansar), Chapter 43, No. 234, p.152.


Zainab bint Jahsh was married to Muhammad's adopted son until Muhammad declared a Surah that he should divorce his son and marry Muhammad. Zainab "used to boast to the other wives of the Prophet and used to say that Allah married her (to the Prophet) in the heavens." Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93 (Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah), Chapter 22, No. 517, p.382; also see Book 93 (Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah), Chapter 22, No. 516, 518, p.381-383. In other words, the heavenly, uncreated, and eternal Quran mentioned Zainab's marriage.


**Islam and Women**

"'How does any one of you beat his wife as he beats the stallion camel and then embrace (sleep) with her?' And Hisham said, 'As he beats his slave.'" Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73 (Good Manners), Chapter 43, No. 68, p.42.


"Abu Huraira narrated: 'The Prophet of Allah said, 'Treat women nicely, for a woman is created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part; so, if you try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely.'" Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55 (Prophets), Chapter 1, No. 548, p.346.


"'Abdullah bin Qais Al-Ash'ari narrated: 'The Prophet said, 'In Paradise there is a pavilion made of a single hollow pearl thirty miles in height, in each corner of the pavilion, there are wives for the believer that cannot be seen by the others.'" Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54 (Beginning of Creation), Chapter 7, No. 466, p.306.


**Women in Islamic Law**

"Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri narrated: 'The Prophet said, 'Is not the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?' The women said, 'Yes.' He said, 'This is because of the deficiency of a woman's mind.'" Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 48 (Witnesses), Chapter 12, No. 826, p.502.


"Muhammad said, 'A nation which makes a woman their ruler will never be successful.'" Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 88 (Afflictions and the End of the World), Chapter 18, No. 219, p.171.


**Temporary Marriage (Mut’a)**

"'Ali bin Abi Talib narrated: 'On the day of Khaibar, Allah's Messenger forbade the Mut’a (i.e., temporary marriage) and the eating of donkey flesh.'" Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59 (Military Expeditions), Chapter 37, No. 527, p.372. Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62 (Wedlock), Chapter 32, No. 50, 52, p.36, 37 also discuss this matter. Most Muslims except some Sunnis do not practice temporary marriage, while many Shias teach that it is permissible.


**Race Relations and Muhammad's Ownership of African Slaves**


"Anas narrated: 'The Prophet said, 'Listen and obey (your chief) even if an Ethiopian whose head is like a raisin is made your chief.'" Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 11 (Call to Prayers), Chapter 54, No. 662, p.375 (also Ibn Majah, Volume 4, Book 24 (Jihad), Chapter 39, No. 2860, p.196). Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 11 (Call to Prayers), Chapter 55, No. 664, p.376, says similarly.


As stated earlier, Muhammad was a slave owner who had at least one African slave. (Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Chapter 316, No. 435, p.407, Volume 9, Book 91 (Witnesses), Chapter 3, No. 368, p.275). Muhammad sold his African slaves to free another slave who converted to Islam. Ibn Majah, Volume 4, Book 24 (Jihad), Chapter 41, No. 2869, p.202. Following are excerpts.


"Then I dressed and went to the house of the Prophet of Allah, and behold, he was staying in an upper room where his African slave was (staying) on the first step." (Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Chapter 316, No. 435, p.407)


"Umar narrated, 'I came and saw the Messenger of Allah living in the Mashroba (an attic room) and the African slave of the Messenger of Allah was on its steps.'" (Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 91, Chapter 3, No. 368, p.275)


This is interesting because Muhammad bought a slave who had converted to Islam (perhaps to free him.) Instead of paying the owner cash, Muhammad sold two of his African slaves. The ethnicity of the first slave is not mentioned, but for some reason, it was important to note that the two slaves Muhammad sold were African, and they had to be two to buy one.


"Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) reported that there came a slave and pledged allegiance to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) for migration. He (the Prophet) did not know that he was a slave. Then there came his master and demanded him back, whereupon Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: 'Sell him to me.' And he bought him for two


 black slaves, and he did not afterward take the oath of allegiance from anyone until he had asked whether he was a slave (or a free man)." (Ibn Majah, Volume 4, Book 24 (Jihad), Chapter 41, No. 2869, p.202)

The Hadith of Bukhari can be found online at the websites:

http://cwis.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/

and www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/


**Comments for Christians**


Although you may feel very blessed that you do not need to believe and do these things, do not boast. If it were not for the grace of God, you could be ensnared in such a bondage that would make you think you need to do these things to please God. Your Sunni Muslim friends may not know much about their own books and may not understand these things. Show them and ask if they really want to participate in these things.


God wants us to love Him; He wants our hearts and minds as well as our conduct and actions. He does not want us to believe in unsanitary remedies like using flies, or immoral acts with captives and slave girls. God wants us to follow what He has taught us in His Word, the Bible, and through Jesus, who was more than a prophet; Isaiah called Him Emmanuel (God with us).


Shalom


Dr. Max Shimba for Max Shimba Ministries Org

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