1.) ALLAH WAS WORSHIPED BY PAGANS LONG TIME BEFORE MUHAMMAD. ALLAH WAS BELIEVED TO HAVE THREE DAUGHTERS NAMELY, AL-LAT, AL-UZZA, AND MANAT. MUHAMMAD ALSO PROSTRATED TO THESE THREE GODDESSES (QURAN 53:19-20).
[Excerpt from Wikipedia, Nabataean Religion]
2.) RAMADAN IS A REPLACEMENT OF “ASHURA”, A PAGAN FASTING OBSERVANCE IN PRE-ISLAMIC TIME. THE PAGANS, MUHAMMAD, AND THE EARLY MUSLIMS OBSERVED “ASHURA” TOGETHER.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1893]
Narrated `Aisha: (The tribe of) Quraish used to fast on the day of Ashura’ in the Pre-Islamic period, and then Allah’s Apostle ordered (Muslims) to fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed; whereupon the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “He who wants to fast (on ‘Ashura’) may fast, and he who does not want to fast may not fast.”
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1892]
Narrated Ibn `Umar: The Prophet (ﷺ) observed the fast on the 10th of Muharram (‘Ashura), and ordered (Muslims) to fast on that day, but when the fasting of the month of Ramadan was prescribed, the fasting of the ‘Ashura’ was abandoned. `Abdullah did not use to fast on that day unless it coincided with his routine fasting by chance.
[Sahih Bukhari Vol. 5, Bk. 58, No. 172]
‘Ashura’ (i.e. the tenth of Muharram) was a day on which the tribe of Quraish used to fast in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance. The Prophet also used to fast on this day. So when he migrated to Medina, he fasted on it and ordered (the Muslims) to fast on it. When the fasting of Ramadan was enjoined, it became optional for the people to fast or not to fast on the day of Ashura.
3.) THE MUSLIMS SELECTED A STONE TO WORSHIP AND PERFORMED TAWAF (CIRCUMAMBULATION) AROUND IT.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 4376 & 4377]
Narrated Abu Raja Al-Utaridi:
We used to worship stones, and when we found a better stone than the first one, we would throw the first one and take the latter, but if we could not get a stone then we would collect some earth (i.e. soil) and then bring a sheep and milk that sheep over it, and perform the Tawaf around it. When the month of Rajab came, we used (to stop the military actions), calling this month the iron remover, for we used to remove and throw away the iron parts of every spear and arrow in the month of Rajab. Abu Raja’ added: When the Prophet (ﷺ) sent with (Allah’s) Message, I was a boy working as a shepherd of my family camels. When we heard the news about the appearance of the Prophet, we ran to the fire, i.e. to Musailima al-Kadhdhab.
4.) MUHAMMAD KISSED THE BLACK STONE AND PROUDLY CIRCUMAMBULATED THE KAABAH TOGETHER WITH THE PAGANS
[Sahih Muslim 1218 d]
Jabir b. Abdullah (Allah be pleased with them) reported that when Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) proceeded to Mecca, he came to it (the Black Stone). he kissed it. and moved to his right. and moved quickly in three circuits, and walked in four circuits.
[Sunan Abi Dawud 1889]
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:
The Prophet (ﷺ) wore the mantle under his right armpit with the end over his left shoulder, and touched the corner (Black Stone), then uttered “Allah is most great” and walked proudly in three circuits of circumambulation. When they (the Companions) reached the Yamani corner, and disappeared from the eyes of the Quraysh, they walked as usual; When they appeared before them, they walked proudly with rapid strides. Thereupon the Quraysh said: They look to be the deer (that are jumping). Ibn Abbas said: Hence this became the sunnah (model behaviour of the Prophet).
5.) THE PAGANS CIRCUMAMBULATED THE KAABA NAKED THE SAME WITH THE MUSLIMS ARE DOING TODAY
[Sahih Muslim 1219 b]
Hisham narrated on the authority of his father that the Arabs with the exception of Hums who were Quraish, and their descendants, circumambulated the House naked. They kept circumambulating In this state of nudity unless the Hums supplied to them the clothes. The male provided (clothes) to the male and the female provided clothes to the female. And the Hums did not get out of Muzdalifa, whereas the people (other than the Quraish) went to ‘Arafat.
6.) THE BLACK STONE WAS A PAGAN IDOL, IT’S ONE OF THE 360 IDOLS IN KAABA WHICH WERE WORSHIPED BY THE PAGANS AND MUHAMMAD.
[Excerpt from Wikipedia, Black Stone]
7.) THE MUSLIMS BELIEVE THAT THE STONE THEY WORSHIP COULD SUCK THEIR SINS, HENCE IT BECAME BLACK.
[At-Tirmidhi, Sunan, hadith no. 959. This hadith is classified as hasan by At-Tirmidhi and as Sahih by Al-Hakim (1/664), and Adh-Dhahabi agreed with him]
Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) quoted the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) as saying: “Touching them both (the Black Stone and Ar-Rukn Al-Yamani) is an expiation for one’s sins.”
[Jami` at-Tirmidhi 877, Book 9, Hadith 70]
Ibn Abbas narrated that: The Messenger of Allah said: “The Black Stone descended from the Paradise, and it was more white than milk, then it was blackened by the sins of the children of Adam.”
8.) THE MUSLIMS BELIEVE THAT THE BLACK STONE WILL WITNESS ON THE JUDGMENT DAY. IT WILL BE GIVEN TWO EYES TO SEE AND TONGUE TO TALK.
[Sunan Ibn Majah, Book of Hajj Rituals, Hadith 2944]
It was narrated that Sa’eed bin Jubair said:
I heard Ibn ‘Abbas say: The Messenger of Allah said: “This Stone will be brought on the Day of Resurrection, and it will be given two eyes with which to see, and a tongue with which to speak, and it will bear witness for those who touched it in sincerity.”